00004 Risk for infection

image_pdfDownload PDF

00004 Risk for infection

Definition of the NANDA label

The Risk of infection is the state in which the individual has a high risk of being invaded by pathogenic infectious agents.

Susceptible to invasion and multiplication of pathogenic organisms, which may compromise health.

Risk factors

  • Alteration of primary defenses:
    • Skin continuity solution.
    • Traumatized tissues.
    • Decreased ciliary action.
    • Body fluid retention.
    • Modification of the pH of secretions.
    • Alteration of peristalsis.
  • Alteration of secondary defenses:
    • Anemia (decreased hemoglobin).
    • Leukopenia.
    • Suppression of the inflammatory response.
    • Immunosuppression.
  • Inadequate acquired immunity.
  • Tissue injuries and increased environmental exposure.
  • Chronic diseases.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Trauma.
  • Effect of pharmacological agents.
  • Invasive therapeutic procedures.
  • Rupture of the amniotic membrane.
  • Lack of knowledge to avoid exposure to pathogens.

At risk population

  • Cold temperature of operating room
  • Excessive number of personnel present during the surgical procedure
  • Increased environmental exposure to pathogens – Sub-optimal American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical health status score – Surgical wound contamination

Associated condition

  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Duration of surgery
  • Hypertension
  • Immunosuppression
  • Inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Ineffective antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Infections at other surgical sites
  • Invasive procedure
  • Post-traumatic osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Type of anesthesia
  • Type of surgical procedure
  • Use of implants and/or prostheses


  • Risk control. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
  • Wound healing. By first intention.
  • Wound healing. By second intention.
  • Infectious state.
  • Immune status.


  • Teaching and education: safe sex.
  • Teaching and education: sexuality.
  • Protection against infection.
  • Wound care.
  • Care of the incision site.
  • Infection control.
  • Circulatory care. Arterial insufficiency.
  • Wound care.
  • Immunization management. Vaccination.
  • Analysis of the health situation.
image_pdfDownload PDF