00030 Impaired gas exchange

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00030 Impaired gas exchange

Definition of the NANDA label

Impaired gas exchange is the state in which there is an excess or deficit in oxygenation or in the elimination of carbon dioxide at the level of the alveolocapillary membrane.

Excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolar-capillary membrane.

The defining characteristics, related factors, NOC and NIC of the NANDA diagnosis “Impaired gas exchange” are detailed below.

Defining characteristics

  • Cyanosis (only in neonates) and abnormal skin color (pale ashen).
  • Hypocapnia or hypercapnia.
  • Hypoxia and hypoxemia.
  • Abnormal respiratory rate, rhythm, and capacity.
  • Visual disorders.
  • Abnormal arterial blood gas and arterial pH.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Fatigue and dyspnea.
  • Nasal flutter.
  • Agitation and irritability.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Headache upon waking.
  • Diaphoresis.

Related factors

  • Changes in the alveolocapillary membrane.
  • Imbalance in the ventilation / perfusion ratio.

Associated condition

  • Alveolar-capillary membrane changes – Ventilation-perfusion imbalance


  • Status of vital signs.
  • Electrolyte and acid-base balance.
  • Respiratory state: gas exchange.
  • Respiratory state: ventilation
  • Pulmonary tissue perfusion.


  • Interpretation of laboratory data.
  • Respiratory monitoring.
  • Acid-base handling.
  • Airway management.
  • Vital signs monitoring.
  • Electrolyte management.
  • Helps with ventilation.
  • Oxygen therapy.
  • Pulmonary embolism care.
  • Hemodynamic regulation.

This diagnosis will retire from the NANDA-I Taxonomy in the 2021-2023 edition unless additional work is
completed to bring it up to a level of evidence 2.1 or higher.

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