Definition of the NANDA label
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience caused by a real or potential tissue injury or described in such terms, of sudden or slow onset, of any intensity from mild to severe, constant or recurrent, without a foreseeable end and a duration greater than 6 months.
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of any intensity from mild to severe, constant or recurring without an anticipated or predictable end, and with a duration of greater than 3 months.
• Verbal reference or observation of pain experienced for more than six months.
• Facies of pain.
• Protective behavior.
• Observation of evidence.
• Insomnia or changes in sleep pattern.
• Personality changes.
• Fear of new injuries.
• Alteration in the ability to continue with previous activities.
• Social isolation.
• Agitation and depression.
• Focus your attention on yourself.
• Atrophy of the muscle groups involved.
• Responses of the sympathetic nervous system (temperature, cold, changes in body position).
• Chronic or terminal illnesses.
• Chronic physical and psychosocial disability.
At risk population
• Age > 50 years
• Female gender
• History of abuse
• History of genital mutilation
• History of over indebtedness – History of static work postures – History of substance misuse – History of vigorous exercise
• Chronic musculoskeletal condition – Contusion
• Crush injury
• Damage to the nervous system – Fracture
• Genetic disorder
• Imbalance of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and receptors – Immune disorder
• Impaired metabolic functioning – Ischemic condition
• Muscle injury
• Post-trauma related condition – Prolonged increase in cortisol level – Spinal cord injury
• Tumor infiltration
• Pain control.
• Control of depression.
• Pain: psychological response.
• Level of depression.
• Pain: harmful effects.
• Comfort level.
• Pain level.
• Agreement with the patient.
• Control of mood.
• Medication management.
• Increase coping.
• Behavior modification.
• Cognitive restructuring.
• Emotional Support.
• Pain management.